Building and construction

Building or housing is the most basic human need. It shelters us. When we see or hear the word “building”, we imagine that a building is tall and has a roof, walls, rooms, etc. But in a broader sense, the definition of a building in terms of structure based on brick, sand, types of cement, water, concrete, metal, etc.

What is a building?

A building is a type of structure that is built with materials including: foundations, plinths, walls, floors, ceilings, chimneys, plumbing and construction services, fixed platforms, porches, balconies, cornices or ridges, part of a building or anything else. A building is any wall enclosed or intended to enclose any land or space and installed. For example, houses, factories, shopping malls, hospitals, etc.

The purpose of a building is to provide shelter along with security. Other purposes such as buildings respond to several needs of society mainly as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, storage of equipment, supplied electricity and comfortable living and working.

Types of buildings

The buildings may be load-bearing masonry buildings, RCC buildings or steel structures. There are different types of buildings. like the:

_ Residential Houses,
– Schools and universities,
_ hospitals,
Factories, workshops,
_ Mosques, churches, temples,
Shopping centers and so on

Basic components and building parts

Building components or parts are essential materials for building construction. All buildings are built with the same components such as foundations, walls, floors, rooms and roofs. Buildings must be decorated or renovated with paint, plaster, electricity supplied and door and window fittings, fencing and other exterior work to be properly finished. All these works are called construction services.

A building has three basic requirements and components, which include:

_ the base

_ plinth (in general, the stone that is installed around the building and at the foot of the wall is called the plinth stone or the plinth stone of the building. (Its other name is Tisheh stone.))


Below is a brief description of these basic parts of a building.

The base

The foundation is the most vital part of building construction. The load of the buildings depends on the foundation which is the strength of the buildings. This is a type of infrastructure. Foundations can be divided into shallow and deep foundations. The words shallow and deep indicate the depth of the foundation in the soil. Shallow foundations are used for small and light buildings, such as small or medium-sized houses, small shopping centers, etc., and deep foundations are used for heavy and large buildings, such as tall buildings, large shopping centers, Hospitals and large universities, etc… In general, shallow foundations can be built at a depth of 3 feet (1 m) and deep foundations at a depth of 200-60 feet (20-65 m).

There are different types of foundations in building construction.

strip foundation (shallow foundations)
Foundation foundation (shallow foundations)
Pad base (shallow bases)
Grillage foundation (shallow foundations)
Raft foundation (shallow foundations)
Pile foundation (deep foundations)
pier base (deep foundations)
Foundations (deep foundations).

All these foundations work to build columns, walls, rooms and living spaces. Depending on the type of foundation, workers use different amounts of building materials, for example, in joists, workers make pile foundations.

Duties of bases:

load distribution
Provide a firm and smooth surface
Protection against soil movement
Reducing load intensity
Reduction of differential seat
Safety against slipping and tipping
Immunity against weakening



Considering that the building is always exposed to atmospheric and climatic factors and must maintain its stability and stability in different conditions, in order to prevent the penetration of moisture and the stretching of the wall, they place stone stones at the base of the building. Since the walls, bricks, soil and mortar have the property of absorbing water a lot, Matshani stone compensates for this defect and prevents the moisture caused by precipitation, including snow and rain, from reaching the depth and height of the wall next to the building and sidewalks. The plinth resists the entry of rainwater and insects into the building. The height of the general base is 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 cm.


The superstructure is built above the underground level. The place between the underground and the surface is known as plinth. In this structure, walls and rooms are built and loads are transferred from the upper part to the substructure. In this part, a building has the following components:

Floor structures

It is an important element in building construction. It is located on the lowest level of a room. Floors can be decorated in many ways.

Roof structures

It is located on the upper level of a room. Depending on the weather, roofs can be of different categories such as blue roof, cold roof, collar roof, fabric roof, home roof, fiber cement, flat roof, green roof, sloping roof, single slope roof, shell roof, roof Metal, roof tile, skolion roof, etc., flat roofs and cement fiber roofs are mostly used in building construction.

Door and Window

Doors create a communication link between rooms and allow free movement from room to room.Doors and windows provide lighting, sound insulation from the outside, and ventilation. Undoubtedly, both provide security and privacy. Different buildings have different sizes of doors. For example: the doors of residential areas are completely different from the doors of industrial buildings. There are different types of doors that engineers and architects use in building construction.

Materials that can be used for doors can be wooden doors, metal doors and UPVC doors

According to the mechanism and use of the door, it can include sliding door, composite door, revolving door, revolving door and folding door.

There are also different types of windows such as:

Axial, double hung, sliding, body, sash, louvered, metal, bay, corner window, window, dormitory, gable window, lantern, skylight

Walls and columns

Walls are building blocks of brick or stone. They divide the building space into different support space slabs into different beams and rooms. They transfer the loads on them from the beams and slabs to the foundation safely. They provide privacy and protection from heat, cold, rain, noise, wind and dust. The walls can be brick walls and masonry walls.

Columns are the vertical members along which the beams and slab/ceiling are supported. The shape of the columns can be square, rectangular and circular.

The final appearance of a building depends on such works. like the:

Plastering and pointing
Kitchen setup
Painting the walls
Furnishing wooden doors and woodwork
Oiling and painting, grill work and metal work.
Locating and maintaining elevators and stairs

Building services

There are other construction services after construction, which are also considered as components of building construction. Such as water supply, electricity supply, drainage and sanitary services, closet services and internal closets.

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